2009 Edition Chapter 9B. Signs
03 Where signs serve both bicyclists and other road users, vertical mounting height and lateral placement shall be as provided in Part 2.
04 Where used on a shared-use path, no portion of a sign or its support shall be placed less than 2 feet laterally from the near edge of the path, or less than 8 feet vertically over the entire width of the shared-use path (see Figure 9B-1).
Figure 9B-1 Sign Placement on Shared-Use Paths
05 Mounting height for post-mounted signs on shared-use paths shall be a minimum of 4 feet, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the path surface (see Figure 9B-1).
07 The clearance for overhead signs on shared-use paths should be adjusted when appropriate to accommodate path users requiring more clearance, such as equestrians, or typical maintenance or emergency vehicles.
02 The minimum sign and plaque sizes for shared-use paths shall be those shown in Table 9B-1, and shall be used only for signs and plaques installed specifically for bicycle traffic applications. The minimum sign and plaque sizes for bicycle facilities shall not be used for signs or plaques that are placed in a location that would have any application to other vehicles.
|Sign or Plaque||Sign Designation||Section||Shared-Use Path||Roadway|
|Stop||R1-1||2B.05, 9B.03||18 x 18||30 x 30|
|Yield||R1-2||2B.08, 9B.03||18 x 18 x 18||30 x 30 x 30|
|Bike Lane||R3-17||9B.04||—||24 x 18|
|Bike Lane (plaques)||R3-17aP, R3-17bP||9B.04||—||24 x 8|
|Movement Restriction||R4-1,2,3,7,16||2B.28,29,30,32; 9B.14||12 x 18||18 x 24|
|Begin Right Turn Lane Yield to Bikes||R4-4||9B.05||—||36 x 30|
|Bicycles May Use Full Lane||R4-11||9B.06||—||30 x 30|
|Bicycle Wrong Way||R5-1b||9B.07||12 x 18||12 x 18|
|No Motor Vehicles||R5-3||9B.08||24 x 24||24 x 24|
|No Bicycles||R5-6||9B.09||18 x 18||24 x 24|
|No Parking Bike Lane||R7-9,9a||9B.10||—||12 x 18|
|No Pedestrians||R9-3||9B.09||18 x 18||18 x 18|
|Ride With Traffic (plaque)||R9-3cP||9B.07||12 x 12||12 x 12|
|Bicycle Regulatory||R9-5,6||9B.11||12 x 18||12 x 18|
|Shared-Use Path Restriction||R9-7||9B.12||12 x 18||—|
|No Skaters||R9-13||9B.09||18 x 18||18 x 18|
|No Equestrians||R9-14||9B.09||18 x 18||18 x 18|
|Push Button for Green Light||R10-4||9B.11||9 x 12||9 x 12|
|To Request Green Wait on Symbol||R10-22||9B.13||12 x 18||12 x 18|
|Bike Push Button for Green Light||R10-24||9B.11||9 x 15||9 x 15|
|Push Button to Turn On Warning Lights||R10-25||9B.11||9 x 12||9 x 12|
|Bike Push Button for Green Light (arrow)||R10-26||9B.11||9 x 15||9 x 15|
|Grade Crossing (Crossbuck)||R15-1||8B.03, 9B.14||24 x 4.5||48 x 9|
|Number of Tracks (plaque)||R15-2P||8B.03, 9B.14||13.5 x 9||27 x 18|
|Look||R15-8||8B.17, 9B.14||18 x 9||36 x 18|
|Turn and Curve Warning||W1-1,2,3,4,5||2C.04, 9B.15||18 x 18||24 x 24|
|Arrow Warning||W1-6,7||2C.12, 2C.47, 9B.15||24 x 12||36 x 18|
|Intersection Warning||W2-1,2,3,4,5||2C.46, 9B.16||18 x 18||24 x 24|
|Stop,Yield, Signal Ahead||W3-1,2,3||2C.36, 9B.19||18 x 18||30 x 30|
|Narrow Bridge||W5-2||2C.20, 9B.19||18 x 18||30 x 30|
|Path Narrows||W5-4a||9B.19||18 x 18||—|
|Hill||W7-5||9B.19||18 x 18||30 x 30|
|Bump or Dip||W8-1,2||2C.28, 9B.17||18 x 18||24 x 24|
|Pavement Ends||W8-3||2C.30, 9B.17||18 x 18||30 x 30|
|Bicycle Surface Condition||W8-10||9B.17||18 x 18||30 x 30|
|Slippery When Wet (plaque)||W8-10P||9B.17||12 x 9||12 x 9|
|Grade Crossing Advance Warning||W10-1||8B.06, 9B.19||24 Dia.||36 Dia.|
|No Train Horn (plaque)||W10-9P||8B.21, 9B.19||18 x 12||30 x 24|
|Skewed Crossing||W10-12||8B.25, 9B.19||18 x 18||36 x 36|
|Bicycle Warning||W11-1||9B.18||18 x 18||24 x 24|
|Pedestrian Crossing||W11-2||2C.50, 9B.19||18 x 18||24 x 24|
|Combination Bike and Ped Crossing||W11-15||9B.18||18 x 18||30 x 30|
|Trail Crossing (plaque)||W11-15P||9B.18||18 x 12||24 x 18|
|Low Clearance||W12-2||2C.27, 9B.19||18 x 18||30 x 30|
|Playground||W15-1||2C.51, 9B.19||18 x 18||24 x 24|
|Share the Road (plaque)||W16-1P||2C.60, 9B.19||—||18 x 24|
|XX Feet (plaque)||W16-2P||2C.55, 9B.18||18 x 12||24 x 18|
|XX Ft (plaque)||W16-2aP||2C.55, 9B.18||18 x 9||24 x 12|
|Diagonal Arrow (plaque)||W16-7P||9B.18||—||24 x 12|
|Ahead (plaque)||W16-9P||9B.18||—||24 x 12|
|Destination (1 line)||D1-1, D1-1a||2D.37, 9B.20||varies x 6||varies x 18|
|Bicycle Destination (1 line)||D1-1b, D1-1c||9B.20||varies x 6||varies x 6|
|Destination (2 lines)||D1-2, D1-2a||2D.37, 9B.20||varies x 12||varies x 30|
|Bicycle Destination (2 lines)||D1-2b, D1-2c||9B.20||varies x 12||varies x 12|
|Destination (3 lines)||D1-3, D1-3a||2D.37, 9B.20||varies x 18||varies x 42|
|Bicycle Destination (3 lines)||D1-3b, D1-3c||9B.20||varies x 18||varies x 18|
|Street Name||D3-1||2D.43, 9B.20||varies x 6||varies x 8|
|Bicycle Parking Area||D4-3||9B.23||12 x 18||12 x 18|
|Reference Location (1-digit)||D10-1||2H.02, 9B.24||6 x 12||10 x 18|
|Intermediate Reference Location (1-digit)||D10-1a||2H.02, 9B.24||6 x 18||10 x 27|
|Reference Location (2-digit)||D10-2||2H.02, 9B.24||6 x 18||10 x 27|
|Intermediate Reference Location (2-digit)||D10-2a||2H.02, 9B.24||6 x 24||10 x 36|
|Reference Location (3-digit)||D10-3||2H.02, 9B.24||6 x 24||10 x 36|
|Intermediate Reference Location (3-digit)||D10-3a||2H.02, 9B.24||6 x 30||10 x 48|
|Bike Route||D11-1, D11-1c||9B.20||24 x 18||24 x 18|
|Bicycles Permitted||D11-1a||9B.25||18 x 18||—|
|Bike Route (plaque)||D11-1bP||9B.25||18 x 6||—|
|Pedestrians Permitted||D11-2||9B.25||18 x 18||—|
|Skaters Permitted||D11-3||9B.25||18 x 18||—|
|Equestrians Permitted||D11-4||9B.25||18 x 18||—|
|Bicycle Route||M1-8, M1-8a||9B.21||12 x 18||18 x 24|
|U.S. Bicycle Route||M1-9||9B.21||12 x 18||18 x 24|
|Bicycle Route Auxiliary Signs||M2-1; M3-1,2,3,4; M4-1,1a,2,3,5,6,7,7a,8,14||9B.22||12 x 6||12 x 6|
|Bicycle Route Arrow Signs||M5-1,2; M6-1,2,3,4,5,6,7||9B.22||12 x 9||12 x 9|
|Type 3 Object Markers||OM3-L,C,R||2C.63, 9B.26||6 x 18||12 x 36|
- Larger signs may be used when appropriate.
- Dimensions are shown in inches and are shown as width x height.
03 Larger size signs and plaques may be used on bicycle facilities when appropriate (see Section 2A.11).
01 STOP (R1-1) signs (see Figure 9B-2) shall be installed on shared-use paths at points where bicyclists are required to stop.
Figure 9B-2 Regulatory Signs and Plaques for Bicycle Facilities
02 YIELD (R1-2) signs (see Figure 9B-2) shall be installed on shared-use paths at points where bicyclists have an adequate view of conflicting traffic as they approach the sign, and where bicyclists are required to yield the right-of-way to that conflicting traffic.
- Relative speeds of shared-use path and roadway users,
- Relative volumes of shared-use path and roadway traffic, and
- Relative importance of shared-use path and roadway.
06 Speed should not be the sole factor used to determine priority, as it is sometimes appropriate to give priority to a high-volume shared-use path crossing a low-volume street, or to a regional shared-use path crossing a minor collector street.
02 If used, Bike Lane signs and plaques should be used in advance of the upstream end of the bicycle lane, at the downstream end of the bicycle lane, and at periodic intervals along the bicycle lane as determined by engineering judgment based on prevailing speed of bicycle and other traffic, block length, distances from adjacent intersections, and other considerations.
01 Where motor vehicles entering an exclusive right-turn lane must weave across bicycle traffic in bicycle lanes, the BEGIN RIGHT TURN LANE YIELD TO BIKES (R4-4) sign (see Figure 9B-2) may be used to inform both the motorist and the bicyclist of this weaving maneuver (see Figures 9C-1, 9C-4, and 9C-5).
01 The Bicycles May Use Full Lane (R4-11) sign (see Figure 9B-2) may be used on roadways where no bicycle lanes or adjacent shoulders usable by bicyclists are present and where travel lanes are too narrow for bicyclists and motor vehicles to operate side by side.
03 Section 9C.07 describes a Shared Lane Marking that may be used in addition to or instead of the Bicycles May Use Full Lane sign to inform road users that bicyclists might occupy the travel lane.
01 The Bicycle WRONG WAY (R5-1b) sign and RIDE WITH TRAFFIC (R9-3cP) plaque (see Figure 9B-2) may be placed facing wrong-way bicycle traffic, such as on the left side of a roadway.
01 The NO MOTOR VEHICLES (R5-3) sign (see Figure 9B-2) may be installed at the entrance to a shared-use path.
01 Selective Exclusion signs (see Figure 9B-2) may be installed at the entrance to a roadway or facility to notify road or facility users that designated types of traffic are excluded from using the roadway or facility.
- No Bicycles (R5-6),
- No Pedestrians (R9-3),
- No Skaters (R9-13), and
- No Equestrians (R9-14).
04 Where bicyclists, pedestrians, and motor-driven cycles are all prohibited, it may be more desirable to use the R5-10a word message sign that is described in Section 2B.39.
01 If the installation of signs is necessary to restrict parking, standing, or stopping in a bicycle lane, appropriate signs as described in Sections 2B.46 through 2B.48, or the No Parking Bike Lane (R7-9 or R7-9a) signs (see Figure 9B-2) shall be installed.
01 The R9-5 sign (see Figure 9B-2) may be used where the crossing of a street by bicyclists is controlled by pedestrian signal indications.
04 If bicyclists are crossing a roadway where In-Roadway Warning Lights (see Section 4N.02) or other warning lights or beacons have been provided, the R10-25 sign (see Figure 9B-2) may be used.
05 The R9-6 sign (see Figure 9B-2) may be used where a bicyclist is required to cross or share a facility used by pedestrians and is required to yield to the pedestrians.
01 The Shared-Use Path Restriction (R9-7) sign (see Figure 9B-2) may be installed to supplement a solid white pavement marking line (see Section 9C.03) on facilities that are to be shared by pedestrians and bicyclists in order to provide a separate designated pavement area for each mode of travel. The symbols may be switched as appropriate.
02 If two-way operation is permitted on the facility for pedestrians and/or bicyclists, the designated pavement area that is provided for each two-way mode of travel should be wide enough to accommodate both directions of travel for that mode.
01 The Bicycle Signal Actuation (R10-22) sign (see Figure 9B-2) may be installed at signalized intersections where markings are used to indicate the location where a bicyclist is to be positioned to actuate the signal (see Section 9C.05).
01 Other regulatory signs described in Chapter 2B may be installed on bicycle facilities as appropriate.
01 To warn bicyclists of unexpected changes in shared-use path direction, appropriate turn or curve (W1-1 through W1-7) signs (see Figure 9B-3) should be used.
Figure 9B-3 Warning Signs and Plaques and Object Markers for Bicycle Facilities
01 Intersection Warning (W2-1 through W2-5) signs (see Figure 9B-3) may be used on a roadway, street, or shared-use path in advance of an intersection to indicate the presence of an intersection and the possibility of turning or entering traffic.
01 The Bicycle Surface Condition Warning (W8-10) sign (see Figure 9B-3) may be installed where roadway or shared-use path conditions could cause a bicyclist to lose control of the bicycle.
02 Signs warning of other conditions that might be of concern to bicyclists, including BUMP (W8-1), DIP (W8-2), PAVEMENT ENDS (W8-3), and any other word message that describes conditions that are of concern to bicyclists, may also be used.
01 The Bicycle Warning (W11-1) sign (see Figure 9B-3) alerts the road user to unexpected entries into the roadway by bicyclists, and other crossing activities that might cause conflicts. These conflicts might be relatively confined, or might occur randomly over a segment of roadway.
02 The combined Bicycle/Pedestrian (W11-15) sign (see Figure 9B-3) may be used where both bicyclists and pedestrians might be crossing the roadway, such as at an intersection with a shared-use path. A TRAIL X-ING (W11-15P) supplemental plaque (see Figure 9B-3) may be mounted below the W11-15 sign.
04 If used in advance of a specific crossing point, the Bicycle Warning or combined Bicycle/Pedestrian sign should be placed at a distance in advance of the crossing location that conforms with the guidance given in Table 2C-4.
05 Bicycle Warning and combined Bicycle/Pedestrian signs, when used at the location of the crossing, shall be supplemented with a diagonal downward pointing arrow (W16-7P) plaque (see Figure 9B-3) to show the location of the crossing.
07 When the fluorescent yellow-green background color is used, a systematic approach featuring one background color within a zone or area should be used. The mixing of standard yellow and fluorescent yellow-green backgrounds within a zone or area should be avoided.
01 Other bicycle warning signs (see Figure 9B-3) such as PATH NARROWS (W5-4a) and Hill (W7-5) may be installed on shared-use paths to warn bicyclists of conditions not readily apparent.
02 In situations where there is a need to warn motorists to watch for bicyclists traveling along the highway, the SHARE THE ROAD (W16-1P) plaque (see Figure 9B-3) may be used in conjunction with the W11-1 sign.
04 Where temporary traffic control zones are present on bikeways, appropriate signs from Part 6 should be used.
01 Bike Route Guide (D11-1) signs (see Figure 9B-4) may be provided along designated bicycle routes to inform bicyclists of bicycle route direction changes and to confirm route direction, distance, and destination.
Figure 9B-4 Guide Signs and Plaques for Bicycle Facilities
02 If used, Bike Route Guide signs may be repeated at regular intervals so that bicyclists entering from side streets will have an opportunity to know that they are on a bicycle route. Similar guide signing may be used for shared roadways with intermediate signs placed for bicyclist guidance.
03 Alternative Bike Route Guide (D11-1c) signs may be used to provide information on route direction, destination, and/or route name in place of the "BIKE ROUTE" wording on the D11-1 sign (see Figures 9B-4 and 9B-6).
04 Destination (D1-1, D1-1a) signs, Street Name (D3-1) signs, or Bicycle Destination (D1-1b, D1-1c, D1-2b, D1-2c, D1-3b, D1-3c) signs (see Figure 9B-4) may be installed to provide direction, destination, and distance information as needed for bicycle travel. If several destinations are to be shown at a single location, they may be placed on a single sign with an arrow (and the distance, if desired) for each name. If more than one destination lies in the same direction, a single arrow may be used for the destinations.
05 Adequate separation should be made between any destination or group of destinations in one direction and those in other directions by suitable design of the arrow, spacing of lines of legend, heavy lines entirely across the sign, or separate signs.
06 An arrow pointing to the right, if used, shall be at the extreme right-hand side of the sign. An arrow pointing left or up, if used, shall be at the extreme left-hand side of the sign. The distance numerals, if used, shall be placed to the right of the destination names.
07 On Bicycle Destination signs, a bicycle symbol shall be placed next to each destination or group of destinations. If an arrow is at the extreme left, the bicycle symbol shall be placed to the right of the respective arrow.
12 Figure 9B-5 shows an example of the signing for the beginning and end of a designated bicycle route on a shared-use path. Figure 9B-6 shows an example of signing for an on-roadway bicycle route. Figure 9B-7 shows examples of signing and markings for a shared-use path crossing.
Figure 9B-5 Example of Signing for the Beginning and End of a Designated Bicycle Route on a Shared-Use Path
Figure 9B-6 Example of Bicycle Guide Signing
Figure 9B-7 Examples of Signing and Markings for a Shared-Use Path Crossing
01 To establish a unique identification (route designation) for a State or local bicycle route, the Bicycle Route (M1-8, M1-8a) sign (see Figure 9B-4) may be used.
02 The Bicycle Route (M1-8) sign shall contain a route designation and shall have a green background with a retroreflectorized white legend and border. The Bicycle Route (M1-8a) sign shall contain the same information as the M1-8 sign and in addition shall include a pictograph or words that are associated with the route or with the agency that has jurisdiction over the route.
04 Where a designated bicycle route extends through two or more States, a coordinated submittal by the affected States for an assignment of a U.S. Bicycle Route number designation should be sent to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (see Page i for the address).
05 The U.S. Bicycle Route (M1-9) sign (see Figure 9B-4) shall contain the route designation as assigned by AASHTO and shall have a black legend and border with a retroreflectorized white background.
06 If used, the Bicycle Route or U.S. Bicycle Route signs should be placed at intervals frequent enough to keep bicyclists informed of changes in route direction and to remind motorists of the presence of bicyclists.
08 The Bicycle Route Guide (D11-1) sign (see Figure 9B-4) may be installed where no unique designation of routes is desired.
02 If used, Junction (M2-1), Cardinal Direction (M3 series), and Alternative Route (M4 series) auxiliary plaques (see Figure 9B-4) should be mounted above the appropriate Bike Route Guide signs, Bicycle Route signs, or U.S. Bicycle Route signs.
03 If used, Advance Turn Arrow (M5 series) and Directional Arrow (M6 series) auxiliary plaques (see Figure 9B-4) should be mounted below the appropriate Bike Route Guide sign, Bicycle Route sign, or U.S. Bicycle Route sign.
05 Route sign auxiliary plaques carrying word legends that are used on bicycle routes should have a minimum size of 12 x 6 inches. Route sign auxiliary plaques carrying arrow symbols that are used on bicycle routes should have a minimum size of 12 x 9 inches.
08 Destination (D1-1b and D1-1c) signs (see Figure 9B-4) may be mounted below Bike Route Guide signs, Bicycle Route signs, or U.S. Bicycle Route signs to furnish additional information, such as directional changes in the route, or intermittent distance and destination information.
01 The Bicycle Parking Area (D4-3) sign (see Figure 9B-4) may be installed where it is desirable to show the direction to a designated bicycle parking area. The arrow may be reversed as appropriate.
Section 9B.24 Reference Location Signs (D10-1 through D10-3) and Intermediate Reference Location Signs (D10-1a through D10-3a)
- Reference Location (D10-1, 2, and 3) signs show an integer distance point along a shared-use path; and
- Intermediate Reference Location (D10-1a, 2a, and 3a) signs also show a decimal between integer distance points along a shared-use path.
02 Reference Location (D10-1 to D10-3) signs (see Figure 9B-4) may be installed along any section of a shared-use path to assist users in estimating their progress, to provide a means for identifying the location of emergency incidents and crashes, and to aid in maintenance and servicing.
03 To augment the reference location sign system, Intermediate Reference Location (D10-1a to D10-3a) signs (see Figure 9B-4), which show the tenth of a mile with a decimal point, may be installed at one tenth of a mile intervals, or at some other regular spacing.
04 If Intermediate Reference Location (D10-1a to D10-3a) signs are used to augment the reference location sign system, the reference location sign at the integer mile point shall display a decimal point and a zero numeral.
05 If placed on shared-use paths, reference location signs shall contain 4.5-inch white numerals on a green background that is at least 6 inches wide with a white border. The signs shall contain the word MILE in 2.25-inch white letters.
06 Reference location signs shall have a minimum mounting height of 2 feet, measured vertically from the bottom of the sign to the elevation of the near edge of the shared-use path, and shall not be governed by the mounting height requirements prescribed in Section 9B.01.
11 Section 2H.05 contains additional information regarding reference location signs.
01 Where separate pathways are provided for different types of users, Mode-Specific Guide (D11-1a, D11-2, D11-3, D11-4) signs (see Figure 9B-4) may be used to guide different types of users to the traveled way that is intended for their respective modes.
04 When some, but not all, non-motorized user types are encouraged or permitted on a shared-use path, Mode-Specific Guide signs may be placed in combination with each other, and in combination with signs (see Section 9B.09) that prohibit travel by particular modes.
05 Figure 9B-8 shows an example of signing where separate pathways are provided for different non-motorized user types.
Figure 9B-8 Example of Mode-Specific Guide Signing on a Shared-Use Path
01 Fixed objects adjacent to shared-use paths may be marked with Type 1, Type 2, or Type 3 object markers (see Figure 9B-3) such as those described in Section 2C.63. If the object marker is not intended to also be seen by motorists, a smaller version of the Type 3 object marker may be used (see Table 9B-1).