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2009 Edition Part 4. Highway Traffic Signals

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PART 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 4A. GENERAL
Section 4A.01 Types
Section 4A.02 Definitions Relating to Highway Traffic Signals
 
CHAPTER 4B. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS—GENERAL
Section 4B.01 General
Section 4B.02 Basis of Installation or Removal of Traffic Control Signals
Section 4B.03 Advantages and Disadvantages of Traffic Control Signals
Section 4B.04 Alternatives to Traffic Control Signals
Section 4B.05 Adequate Roadway Capacity
 
CHAPTER 4C. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL NEEDS STUDIES
Section 4C.01 Studies and Factors for Justifying Traffic Control Signals
Section 4C.02 Warrant 1, Eight Hour Vehicular Volume
Section 4C.03 Warrant 2, Four Hour Vehicular Volume
Section 4C.04 Warrant 3, Peak Hour
Section 4C.05 Warrant 4, Pedestrian Volume
Section 4C.06 Warrant 5, School Crossing
Section 4C.07 Warrant 6, Coordinated Signal System
Section 4C.08 Warrant 7, Crash Experience
Section 4C.09 Warrant 8, Roadway Network
Section 4C.10 Warrant 9, Intersection Near a Grade Crossing
 
CHAPTER 4D. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL FEATURES
Section 4D.01 General
Section 4D.02 Responsibility for Operation and Maintenance
Section 4D.03 Provisions for Pedestrians
Section 4D.04 Meaning of Vehicular Signal Indications
Section 4D.05 Application of Steady Signal Indications
Section 4D.06 Signal Indications – Design, Illumination, Color, and Shape
Section 4D.07 Size of Vehicular Signal Indications
Section 4D.08 Positions of Signal Indications Within a Signal Face – General
Section 4D.09 Positions of Signal Indications Within a Vertical Signal Face
Section 4D.10 Positions of Signal Indications Within a Horizontal Signal Face
Section 4D.11 Number of Signal Faces on an Approach
Section 4D.12 Visibility, Aiming, and Shielding of Signal Faces
Section 4D.13 Lateral Positioning of Signal Faces
Section 4D.14 Longitudinal Positioning of Signal Faces
Section 4D.15 Mounting Height of Signal Faces
Section 4D.16 Lateral Offset (Clearance) of Signal Faces
Section 4D.17 Signal Indications for Left Turn Movements – General
Section 4D.18 Signal Indications for Permissive Only Mode Left Turn Movements
Section 4D.19 Signal Indications for Protected Only Mode Left Turn Movements
Section 4D.20 Signal Indications for Protected/Permissive Mode Left Turn Movements
Section 4D.21 Signal Indications for Right Turn Movements – General
Section 4D.22 Signal Indications for Permissive Only Mode Right Turn Movements
Section 4D.23 Signal Indications for Protected Only Mode Right Turn Movements
Section 4D.24 Signal Indications for Protected/Permissive Mode Right Turn Movements
Section 4D.25 Signal Indications for Approaches With Shared Left Turn/Right Turn Lanes and No Through Movement
Section 4D.26 Yellow Change and Red Clearance Intervals
Section 4D.27 Preemption and Priority Control of Traffic Control Signals
Section 4D.28 Flashing Operation of Traffic Control Signals – General
Section 4D.29 Flashing Operation – Transition Into Flashing Mode
Section 4D.30 Flashing Operation – Signal Indications During Flashing Mode
Section 4D.31 Flashing Operation – Transition Out of Flashing Mode
Section 4D.32 Temporary and Portable Traffic Control Signals
Section 4D.33 Lateral Offset of Signal Supports and Cabinets
Section 4D.34 Use of Signs at Signalized Locations
Section 4D.35 Use of Pavement Markings at Signalized Locations
 
CHAPTER 4E. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL FEATURES
Section 4E.01 Pedestrian Signal Heads
Section 4E.02 Meaning of Pedestrian Signal Head Indications
Section 4E.03 Application of Pedestrian Signal Heads
Section 4E.04 Size, Design, and Illumination of Pedestrian Signal Head Indications
Section 4E.05 Location and Height of Pedestrian Signal Heads
Section 4E.06 Pedestrian Intervals and Signal Phases
Section 4E.07 Countdown Pedestrian Signals
Section 4E.08 Pedestrian Detectors
Section 4E.09 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – General
Section 4E.10 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – Location
Section 4E.11 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – Walk Indications
Section 4E.12 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – Tactile Arrows and Locator Tones
Section 4E.13 Accessible Pedestrian Signals and Detectors – Extended Pushbutton Press Features
 
CHAPTER 4F. PEDESTRIAN HYBRID BEACONS
Section 4F.01 Application of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons
Section 4F.02 Design of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons
Section 4F.03 Operation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons
 
CHAPTER 4G. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS AND HYBRID BEACONS FOR EMERGENCY-VEHICLE ACCESS
Section 4G.01 Application of Emergency Vehicle Traffic Control Signals and Hybrid Beacons
Section 4G.02 Design of Emergency Vehicle Traffic Control Signals
Section 4G.03 Operation of Emergency Vehicle Traffic Control Signals
Section 4G.04 Emergency Vehicle Hybrid Beacons
 
CHAPTER 4H. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS FOR ONE-LANE, TWO-WAY FACILITIES
Section 4H.01 Application of Traffic Control Signals for One Lane, Two Way Facilities
Section 4H.02 Design of Traffic Control Signals for One Lane, Two Way Facilities
Section 4H.03 Operation of Traffic Control Signals for One Lane, Two Way Facilities
 
CHAPTER 4I. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS FOR FREEWAY ENTRANCE RAMPS
Section 4I.01 Application of Freeway Entrance Ramp Control Signals
Section 4I.02 Design of Freeway Entrance Ramp Control Signals
Section 4I.03 Operation of Freeway Entrance Ramp Control Signals
 
CHAPTER 4J. TRAFFIC CONTROL FOR MOVABLE BRIDGES
Section 4J.01 Application of Traffic Control for Movable Bridges
Section 4J.02 Design and Location of Movable Bridge Signals and Gates
Section 4J.03 Operation of Movable Bridge Signals and Gates
 
CHAPTER 4K. HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SIGNALS AT TOLL PLAZAS
Section 4K.01 Traffic Signals at Toll Plazas
Section 4K.02 Lane Use Control Signals at or Near Toll Plazas
Section 4K.03 Warning Beacons at Toll Plazas
 
CHAPTER 4L. FLASHING BEACONS
Section 4L.01 General Design and Operation of Flashing Beacons
Section 4L.02 Intersection Control Beacon
Section 4L.03 Warning Beacon
Section 4L.04 Speed Limit Sign Beacon
Section 4L.05 Stop Beacon
 
CHAPTER 4M. LANE-USE CONTROL SIGNALS
Section 4M.01 Application of Lane Use Control Signals
Section 4M.02 Meaning of Lane Use Control Signal Indications
Section 4M.03 Design of Lane Use Control Signals
Section 4M.04 Operation of Lane Use Control Signals
 
CHAPTER 4N. IN-ROADWAY LIGHTS
Section 4N.01 Application of In Roadway Lights
Section 4N.02 In Roadway Warning Lights at Crosswalks

 

PART 4 FIGURES
CHAPTER 4C. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL NEEDS STUDIES
Figure 4C-1 Warrant 2, Four-Hour Vehicular Volume
Figure 4C-2 Warrant 2, Four-Hour Vehicular Volume (70% Factor)
Figure 4C-3 Warrant 3, Peak Hour
Figure 4C-4 Warrant 3, Peak Hour (70% Factor)
Figure 4C-5 Warrant 4, Pedestrian Four-Hour Volume
Figure 4C-6 Warrant 4, Pedestrian Four-Hour Volume (70% Factor)
Figure 4C-7 Warrant 4, Pedestrian Peak Hour
Figure 4C-8 Warrant 4, Pedestrian Peak Hour (70% Factor)
Figure 4C-9 Warrant 9, Intersection Near a Grade Crossing (One Approach Lane at the Track Crossing)
Figure 4C-10 Warrant 9, Intersection Near a Grade Crossing (Two or More Approach Lanes at the Track Crossing)
 
CHAPTER 4D. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL FEATURES
Figure 4D-1 Example of U-Turn Signal Face
Figure 4D-2 Typical Arrangements of Signal Sections in Signal Faces That Do Not Control Turning Movements
Figure 4D-3 Recommended Vehicular Signal Faces for Approaches with Posted, Statutory, or 85th Percentile Speed of 45 mph or Higher
Figure 4D-4 Lateral and Longitudinal Location of Primary Signal Faces
Figure 4D-5 Maximum Mounting Height of Signal Faces Located Between 40 Feet and 53 Feet from Stop Line
Figure 4D-6 Typical Position and Arrangements of Shared Signal Faces for Permissive Only Mode Left Turns
Figure 4D-7 Typical Position and Arrangements of Separate Signal Faces with Flashing Yellow Arrow for Permissive Only Mode Left Turns
Figure 4D-8 Typical Position and Arrangements of Separate Signal Faces with Flashing Red Arrow for Permissive Only Mode and Protected/Permissive Mode Left Turns
Figure 4D-9 Typical Positions and Arrangements of Shared Signal Faces for Protected Only Mode Left Turns
Figure 4D-10 Typical Position and Arrangements of Separate Signal Faces for Protected Only Mode Left Turns
Figure 4D-11 Typical Position and Arrangements of Shared Signal Faces for Protected/Permissive Mode Left Turns
Figure 4D-12 Typical Position and Arrangements of Separate Signal Faces with Flashing Yellow Arrow for Protected/Permissive Mode and Protected Only Mode Left Turns
Figure 4D-13 Typical Positions and Arrangements of Shared Signal Faces for Permissive Only Mode Right Turns
Figure 4D-14 Typical Position and Arrangements of Separate Signal Faces with Flashing Yellow Arrow for Permissive Only Mode Right Turns
Figure 4D-15 Typical Position and Arrangements of Separate Signal Faces with Flashing Red Arrow for Permissive Only Mode and Protected/Permissive Mode Right Turns
Figure 4D-16 Typical Positions and Arrangements of Shared Signal Faces for Protected Only Mode Right Turns
Figure 4D-17 Typical Position and Arrangements of Separate Signal Faces for Protected Only Mode Right Turns
Figure 4D-18 Typical Positions and Arrangements of Shared Signal Faces for Protected/Permissive Mode Right Turns
Figure 4D-19 Typical Position and Arrangements of Separate Signal Faces with Flashing Yellow Arrow for Protected/Permissive Mode and Protected Only Mode Right Turns
Figure 4D-20 Signal Indications for Approaches with a Shared Left-Turn/Right-Turn Lane and No Through Movement
 
CHAPTER 4E. PEDESTRIAN CONTROL FEATURES
Figure 4E-1 Typical Pedestrian Signal Indications
Figure 4E-2 Pedestrian Intervals
Figure 4E-3 Pushbutton Location Area
Figure 4E-4 Typical Pushbutton Locations
 
CHAPTER 4F. PEDESTRIAN HYBRID BEACONS
Figure 4F-1 Guidelines for the Installation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons on Low-Speed Roadways
Figure 4F-2 Guidelines for the Installation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons on High-Speed Roadways
Figure 4F-3 Sequence for a Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon
 
CHAPTER 4G. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNALS AND HYBRID BEACONS FOR EMERGENCY-VEHICLE ACCESS
Figure 4G-1 Sequence for an Emergency-Vehicle Hybrid Beacon
 
CHAPTER 4M. LANE-USE CONTROL SIGNALS
Figure 4M-1 Left-Turn Lane-Use Control Signals

 

PART 4 TABLES
CHAPTER 4C. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL NEEDS STUDIES
Table 4C-1 Warrant 1, Eight-Hour Vehicular Volume
Table 4C-2 Warrant 9, Adjustment Factor for Daily Frequency of Rail Traffic
Table 4C-3 Warrant 9, Adjustment Factor for Percentage of High-Occupancy Buses
Table 4C-4 Warrant 9, Adjustment Factor for Percentage of Tractor-Trailer Trucks
 
CHAPTER 4D. TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNAL FEATURES
Table 4D-1 Recommended Minimum Number of Primary Signal Faces for Through Traffic on Approaches with Posted, Statutory, or 85th-Percentile Speed of 45 mph or Higher
Table 4D-2 Minimum Sight Distance for Signal Visibility